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L-1011 TristarPhoto Gallery Photo Gallery Contact Sheet L-1011 Tristar Photo Gallery Contact Sheet

Photo Number: N/A
Photo Date: 23 May 2000

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These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden L-1011 TristarPhoto Gallery Photo Gallery.

NASA has conducted the Adaptive Performance Optimization experiment aboard Orbital Sciences Corporation's Lockheed L-1011-100. The program was developed by engineers at the Dryden Flight Research Center. Dryden was also involved in limited wake vortex studies using an L-1011 in 1977.

The Adaptive Performance Optimization project was designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag of large subsonic transport aircraft by varying the camber of the wing through real-time adjustment of flaps or ailerons in response to changing flight conditions. Reducing the drag will improve aircraft efficiency and performance, resulting in signifigant fuel savings for the nation's airlines worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually.

Flights for the NASA experiment were made periodically over the next couple of years on the modified wide-bodied jetliner, with all flights flown out of Bakersfield's Meadows Field. The experiment was part of Dryden's Advanced Subsonic Transport Aircraft Research program.

Dryden conducted extensive wake vortice tests beginning in the 1970's. These wake vortices first became a serious concern when large jetliners were first introduced. The aircraft trailed vortices, created by any large-bodied aircraft, were powerful enough to cause problems for business jets and even other airliners.

Dryden became interested in vortex research both for safety and as a matter of aerodynamics. A wingtip vortex seriously reduces effiecency, causing drag, and therefore a consequent penalty in fuel consumption and performance.

The majority of the tests were conducted using spoilers on a Boeing 747-100, which NASA had just acquired for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing (ALT) tests. With the two spoilers on the outer panels of each wing extended, the vortices were greatly reduced and the chase aircraft could safely fly five kilometers behind the large aircraft, compared to 15 kilometers with no spoilers.

Dryden's 747 wake vortex studies clearly indicated that the use of spoilers could reduce the severity of wake vortices. In July, 1977, the center began a brief series of tests on a Lockheed L-1011 Tristar to determine if the spoiler that worked so well on the 747 could be applied to other wide-body aircraft as well.

The test showed that while spoilers on the Tristar could reduce wake vortices, they were not as effective in doing so as the spoilers on the 747. NASA is continuing wake vortex studies to this day. These projects can be expected to improve the operational safety of many future aircraft.

L-1011 specifications;

  • The first L-1011, a -1 with serial no. 1001, made it's first flight on November 16, 1970. Serial no. 1250, a -500, made it's first flight on October 3, 1983. The last L-1011 to be completed was serial no. 1243, also a -500, which made it's first flight in January 1984.
  • All L-1011's were built as -1, -100, -200 or -500 as new by Lockheed. The total numbers built of these versions are 250 with serial numbers from 1001 to 1250. All -50, -150, -250 and all tankers and freighters are modified later from the existing original versions.
  • Wing span varies from 155 ft, 4 in. to 164 ft, 4 in. (by model)
  • Fuselage diameter 19 ft, 7 in.
  • Stabilizer span 71 ft, 7 in.

Keywords: Lockheed; L-1011; Tristar; Orbital Science Corporation; Adaptive Performance Optimization; 747; wake vortex research

Last Modified: February 6, 2002
Responsible NASA Official: Marty Curry
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